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02/04/2018

A history of migration..As millions of dollars in EU funds flow into Sudan to stem African migration, asylum seekers say they are increasingly trapped, living in a perpetual state of fear and exploitation in this..De ce vin migrantii musulmani ?

Inside the EU’s flawed $200 million migration deal with Sudan

Sudan has long been a transit country for Eritreans and others on the move, as well as a country people flee from.

Sudan’s increasing criminalisation of refugees and migrants, as well as conditions in Libya, where the EU backs the Libyan coastguard to capture refugees at sea and return them to detention centres, have contributed to a steep drop in the number of people arriving in Italy.

In 2016, 40,773 refugees and migrants from the Horn of Africa arrived in Italy; in 2017, only 8,688 people made it.

Yet young Eritrean men and women in Khartoum and Kassala told IRIN they had no intention of remaining in Sudan, despite being aware of the risks of using smugglers to take them through Libya and Egypt, where they can experience torture and death.

Some said they would wait for new, safer routes to open, while others were working as maids and daily labourers to raise enough money to start the journey as soon as possible.

“When I came from Eritrea, I was kidnapped for two weeks. I didn’t know where I was, and I was raped many times. So, nothing [worse] will happen to me. All of us left our families behind,” said a young Eritrean woman in Khartoum. “We’ll take the risk of going to Europe.”

Over the past two years, the EU has allocated more than $200 million in migration-related funds to Sudan, part of its broader strategy to outsource migration control to third countries.

EU financing for border management includes training and equipment for border police, capacity building for the judiciary, and legal reforms to encourage increased arrests and prosecution of traffickers and smugglers.

This support is despite the fact that the Sudanese government has for years been condemned for its human rights record – al-Bashir has an outstanding arrest warrant for crimes against humanity issued by the International Criminal Court.

The EU sidesteps accusations it is working with Sudan’s repressive security apparatus by arguing that it doesn’t fund the government directly, rather it funnels its aid through international organisations, including UN agencies.

But these EU partners are willing to work with controversial arms of the Sudanese government.

For example, the UN refugee agency, UNHCR, confirmed to IRIN it has provided motorbikes in Kassala to the National Intelligence and Security Service (NISS) – a spy service responsible for the arrest, torture, and detention of human rights activists and the government’s political opponents.

Extortion and abuse

In densely populated Khartoum neighbourhoods like al-Geraif and al-Daim, groups of 10 to 15 Eritrean refugees live in sub-divided shanty houses. Rooms are occupied by entire families or as many as eight single young men and women at a time.

Many rely on donations from family members abroad to afford food, children’s school fees, and other basic expenses. Those without family support are destitute, eating only one meal a day, without access to proper sanitation or medical care.

Filmon, 21, arrived in Sudan in November 2016 from Ginda, Eritrea. He shares a dirty, cramped room with five other young men. Until recently, it lacked a latrine.

“Life in Khartoum is very hard. I don’t get enough money or good work and it’s not a safe area,” he told IRIN. “I’ve been asked [by the police] about my cards, my refugee card, regularly. I think about going to Europe through Libya – I have no choice,” he said.

Although Sudan has a policy that refugees must live in camps, the majority of Eritreans either stop in them just long enough to claim asylum status and collect an identification card, or head directly for Khartoum. Many have travelled with smugglers, and some have experienced trafficking, violence, and sexual assault crossing into Sudan or once inside.

In Khartoum, they find a prison of a different kind. Refugees report being terrorised by the police, who enter their neighbourhoods – sometimes in the middle of the night – and extort and detain people for not having ID cards. Cash and valuables are routinely stolen.

Sara is a bubbly young Eritrean woman who attends henna training classes. She told IRIN how she was arrested on the street for not having her refugee card, and at the police station was offered a choice: “If you want to be free, you will have sex with us.”

Sara, who was 17 at the time, narrowly avoided being raped because her 19-year-old female companion went with the policemen instead.

Feeding corruption

Each month, police funnel hundreds of refugees and migrants through courts in Khartoum, where they are charged with violating Sudan’s Passport and Immigration Act and fined the equivalent of $360.

As millions of dollars in EU funds flow into Sudan to stem African migration, asylum seekers say they are increasingly trapped, living in a perpetual state of fear and exploitation in this key transit country.

If they do not pay the fines, they are deported to their home country, usually without having the opportunity to consult a lawyer or claim asylum, even though some may have experienced violence, torture, and other acts in Sudan or in their home countries that could qualify them.

Hundreds of Eritreans have been extradited over the past two years, including some who were registered as refugees. Deporting an asylum seeker back to the country they fled from and where they face persecution is known as refoulement, and it is a violation of the UN Refugee Convention.

Lawyers working to represent refugees in court before they are extradited describe a justice system that is just as corrupt as the police force.

“In many cases the traffickers are let go because they have police officers as [defence] witnesses,” said Khalid, a lawyer working in Khartoum. “There are trials where 250 refugees are arrested, and each one is fined. It happens so fast – the process of being arrested, the trial and the conviction – and the judge and the police force responsible get a cut of the money. These judges are the same ones who were trained by the British embassy.”

The Khartoum Process

Europe’s focus on curbing migration from Sudan began in November 2014, with the launch of the Khartoum Process – a dialogue between the EU and Horn of Africa countries to combat trafficking and smuggling. It initially emphasised protection and human rights, but in operation its focus has been a law enforcement response to migration.

In 2015, Brussels created a special pot of money – the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa – to assist the Khartoum Process in addressing the root causes of migration and fighting trafficking and smuggling.

An Oxfam analysis found that of the €400 million allocated through the fund, only three percent went towards developing safe and regular routes for migration. The bulk was spent on migration control.

Police Lieutenant General Awad al-Neel Dahiya, head of the Ministry of Interior Passports and Civil Registry Authority and a key interlocutor for the EU’s migration efforts, believes the focus is justified.

“As a matter of fact, we have very long borders – 7,000 kilometres plus,” he told IRIN. “Compared to our resources, it is very difficult to control – maybe we can be assisted by technology, so we can control the influx, as well as those going out – whether its Sudanese [people or people from] other countries passing through Sudan.”

Despre musulmanii imigranti in Europa.

Traducere pe scurt :

* Familiile arabe bogate forțează milioane de musulmani să meargă in Europa pentru că au nevoie de ea iar apoi prin intermediul de impunere forțată a religiei o vor stăpani.

* Dacă tarile arabe nu vor să moară de foame in urmatorii 20 – 30 ani, atunci ele trebuie să pună urgent stăpanire pe Europa. Nu de oamenii care locuiesc aici au ei nevoie caci ei nu valorează nimic, ci de apa, alimentele si infrastructura Europei.

* La intrebarea ~ De ce vin migrantii musulmani ? nimeni nu vrea sa raspundă fățis, să recunoască adevăratul motiv sau să dea un răspuns relevant . De ce vin milioane de migranti musulmani in Europa si nu merg in tarile arabe bogate ?

* Europa este inundată de milioane de migranti musulmani la indicatiile liderilor arabi bogati . Realitatea este dură dar o spunem cu multă tărie. Peste 20 – 30 ani rezervele de țiței din unele mari țări arabe azi incă bogate, vor scădea până la epuizare iar energia regenerabilă, reciclabilă, va inlocui țițeiul de azi . Este o certitudine .

* Țările arabe vor intra in regres economic, comercial si financiar si astfel vor avea nevoie de apa, alimentele si infrastructura Europei . Pentru a putea pune măna pe toate bogătiile Europei, continentul trebuie colonizat, dominat si supus .

* De unde pot obtine arabii toate bogatiile necesare vieții ? Doar din Europa. Europa detine azi o mare avere prin apa potabilă existentă si infrastructura adecvată .

* Încă de pe acum se incearcă preluarea totală a conducerii si controlului continentului european .

* Actualii invadatori vor deveni in curând gazde. Un exemplu elocvent este Londra cu primarul ei musulman care a fost votat cu majoritate musulmană si care acum permite inundarea orasului primind migranti fără limită. Londra va deveni in curând oras musulman datorită invaziei migrantilor musulmani .

* Se vede bine ca invazia musulmana de azi are loc după un plan bine stabilit si pus in aplicare după scăderea dramatică a prețului petrolului. Acesta este un semnal de alarmă ce demonstrează apropierea sfârsitului erei petroliere .

* Prin cucerirea Europe, statele arabe isi asigură viitorul existentei lor in detrimentul tuturor țărilor europene. Prin cucerirea Europei, peste 20 – 30 ani statele arabe in loc de petrol vor gestiona bogățiile Europei, apa si culturile alimentare .

* Popoarele europene vor deveni incet, incet, musulmane prin influenta puternica a unor familii arabe bogate peste societatea europeană peste care se va impune prin forță si religie .

* Cei care nu se vor adapta si nu vor accepta credinta musulmană vor muri de foame si vor fi exclusi din societate sau chiar de pe continent luând calea exilului. Asta ne aşteaptă, ăsta-i viitorul nostru .

15 februarie 2018. B. M.Sursa Facebook Cleo Pleiade, loading...

Kenya commemorates last male northern white rhino,It means a shame to us humans, because all of us have facilitated to that, but we never blame ourselves for not doing anything when they are doing that.

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Kenya commemorates last male northern white rhino

Around 300 people gathered in the Ol Pejeta Conservancy in the north of Kenya on Saturday to commemorate Sudan, the last male northern white rhino who recently died aged 45.

Among the attendees was Najib Balala, Cabinet Secretary from Kenya’s Ministry of Tourism, which organized the event. Balala expressed in his speech that wildlife is a valuable asset to Kenya and the death of Sudan acts as a reminder that more efforts must be made to protect endangered wildlife.

Sudan, along with other two female northern white rhinos moved to the Ol Pejeta Conservancy from the Czech Republic in 2009. The three rhinos were placed under 24-hour armed protection. Unfortunately, the two female rhinos were unable to successfully conceive.

It means a shame to us humans, because all of us have facilitated to that, and we always say we all blame poachers for killing our animals, but we never blame ourselves for not doing anything when they are doing that. How did it happen, and what part did I take?

Bases militaires occidentales au Niger : pour quoi faire ?C’est ce manque de coopération qui étonne et frustre les Nigériens qui se demandent légitimement à quoi bon servent ces bases si ce n’est pas pour collaborer avec l’armée locale.

Bases militaires occidentales au Niger : pour quoi faire ?

Les bases militaires se multiplient au Niger. Après les Etats Unis et la France, l’Allemagne envisage d’en installer une nouvelle. La raison : la lutte contre le terrorisme. Est-ce le seul argument ? Dans son article, ALASSANE SOUFOUYANOU Abdourahimoune, exprime son doute quant à la réelle volonté des puissances étrangères installant des bases militaires en Afrique et singulièrement au Niger. Il note un défaut de communication d’informations stratégiques entre ces puissances et les forces armées nationales mais note surtout que ces puissances occidentales, principales cibles du terrorisme, importent les problèmes, les accentuent, sans les résoudre. La lutte contre le terrorisme semble donc un prétexte pour accéder à toutes les riches matières premières qu’abrite le Niger.

Le 10 octobre 2016, la Chancelière allemande Angela Merkel a rendu une visite officielle en République du Niger. Cette visite s’est effectuée en prélude à l’installation très imminente d’une base militaire allemande au nord du Niger qui sera la 3ème après celle des Etats Unis et de la France. Officiellement, ces bases militaires sont installées pour lutter contre le terrorisme de Boko Haram et des autres groupes terroristes au Sahel notamment au Mali et au Niger. Est-ce leur véritable motivation ?

A la veille de la visite de la Chancelière allemande au Niger, un camp de réfugiés maliens sur le territoire nigérien a été attaqué, générant 22 morts et plusieurs blessés. Le 17 octobre 2016, des terroristes ont attaqué la prison de haute sécurité de Koutou-Kallé à une quarantaine de kilomètres de Niamey. Deux jours avant, le 15 octobre 2016, un humanitaire américain a été kidnappé par des éléments du MUJAO venant du Mali, son garde du corps et une tierce personne assassinés par les assaillants. Trois attaques terroristes en moins d’une semaine pour un pays qui abrite des bases aériennes et terrestres de deux grandes puissances militaires.

Avec tous les effectifs et les moyens logistiques déployés, on s’étonne que des militaires nigériens, basés presque dans les mêmes environs, ne soient pas informés de la préparation d’attaques sur leur position. Or, ces bases militaires de par leurs moyens et leur positionnement (Niamey, Agadez et Diffa), couvrent l’essentiel du Niger et du Sahel. Toutes les poches de conflits sont surveillées par des drones et avions de surveillance. Cela signifie raisonnablement qu’il n’y a pas un partage de renseignements collectés par les occidentaux avec les militaires nigériens. C’est ce manque de coopération qui étonne et frustre les Nigériens qui se demandent légitimement à quoi bon servent ces bases si ce n’est pas pour collaborer avec l’armée locale.

Par ailleurs, l’existence même des bases occidentales sur le territoire est un danger car pouvant attirer les hordes des terroristes qui se jurent d’attaquer l’Occident et ses alliés partout dans le monde. Les combattants de l’EI en Libye peuvent, pour se venger des bombardements occidentaux, s’attaquer au Niger. C’est d’ailleurs un des facteurs qui explique les incessantes attaques terroristes sur le territoire nigérien. Autrement dit, sur le plan miliaire ces bases produisent des effets contraires aux résultats escomptés.

Sur le plan économique, ces bases remplissent des missions de contrôle des approvisionnements en matières premières. Il n’est un secret pour personne que les mines d’Areva au Niger approvisionnent une importante partie des centrales nucléaires françaises. Pour assurer la stabilité de cet approvisionnement, un détachement de militaires français est affecté à la protection de ces mines. Le sous-sol sahélo saharien est riche en ressources naturelles. De l’uranium au pétrole en passant par l’étain, le phosphate, le sel, l’or et bien d’autres minerais. Ce qui explique « des stratégies de positionnement, de prise de contrôle, d’encerclement et de contre-encerclement […] à la définition des enjeux géopolitiques et géoéconomiques de la zone sahélienne. »[1]. Les Occidentaux concurrencent, via les bases militaires, les positions de la Chine qui est un partenaire de plus en plus incontournable en Afrique. Au Niger, la Chine est présente dans le secteur pétrolier avec la SORAZ qui est une coentreprise entre la CNPC (China National Petroleum Coorporation) et l’Etat du Niger. Elle est également présente dans l’or et l’uranium avec la China National Nuclear Coorporation (CNNC). Mieux, la Chine a failli ravir la vedette aux Français en étant très proche de remporter les concessions uranifères d’Imouraren. Précisons que l’Allemagne, dernier pays venu au Niger, est également présent dans l’exploitation de l’uranium à travers la Compagnie Urangeselschaft, actionnaire dans la SOMAÏR (Société des Mines de l’Aïr). Dans le charbon, ils sont en phase de reprendre le marché de la Centrale thermique de Salkadamna (qui est en principe aux mains des Américains). Dans le domaine militaire, la Chine n’a pas encore de projet officiel d’installer une base au Niger. Mais compte tenu de son importance économique, l’empire du milieu pense au Niger, ce n’est qu’une question de temps. Au-delà des ressources traditionnelles que constituent le pétrole, le charbon et l’uranium, le Niger dispose d’importants gisements de métaux rares qui peuvent attiser l’intérêt des Occidentaux. Il s’agit du gallium, du dysprosium, du niobium ou encore du zirconium. Ces métaux entrent dans la fabrication de pratiquement tous les produits de haute technologie comme les smartphones, les tablettes, les satellites, etc.

L’autre enjeu derrière l’installation de ces bases militaires, et non le moindre, est la lutte contre la migration clandestine vers les pays de l’Europe et le trafic de drogue. En effet, les routes du trafic de drogue et de migrants se croisent au Niger. La cocaïne produite en Amérique Latine en direction des Etats Unis et de l’Europe transite notamment par le Niger[2] (passe de Salvador). Depuis la chute du guide libyen, la migration clandestine vers l’Europe a repris de plus belle. Pour lutter contre ces phénomènes les Européens créent ou financent des centres de rétention et ou de transit de migrants à Agadez, Dirkou et Niamey. Ainsi, un financement de 50 milliards de Francs CFA est accordé au Niger par l’Union Européenne pour financer cinq projets entrant dans le cadre du plan d’action du sommet de la Valette (UE-Afrique) sur les migrations. En contrepartie, le Niger a accepté d’entraver la libre circulation de citoyens ouest africains, et ce contre les dispositions de l’UEMOA. Pire, il a accepté de réadmettre ceux qui ont fait l’objet d’expulsions du territoire Européen. Le Niger sert de frontières extérieures à l’Union Européenne. C’est à croire que le Niger est devenu le gendarme de l’Europe en matière sécuritaire et de lutte anti-migratoire.

Avec l’installation tout azimut des bases étrangères au Niger, c’est la souveraineté économique et territoriale qui se trouve aliénée tout en offrant un champ de bataille légitime aux terroristes.

ALASSANE SOUFOUYANOU Abdourahimoune, Doctorant nigérien en droit international des droits de l’Homme (DIDH).

Article publié en collaboration avec Libre Afrique.

 
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